New Articles

Powder Metallurgy-Part2

Content:-
 ---Basic Steps In Powder Metallurgy
---Powder Production
---Characterization of Powders
---Blending or Mixing
---Powder Consolidation
---Friction problem in cold compaction
---Sintering
--Finishing
--Special Process: Hot compaction
--Design Aspects
---Advantages and Disadvantages of P/M

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Powder-Metallurgy-Part1

Content:-
 --------The Ten Fundamental Laws of Engineering
--
---------POWDER METALLURGY
-----
----------History of P/M
-----
-----------Renaissance of P/M
-------
------------P/M Applications
-------
-------------Hi-Tech Applications of P/M
---------
--------------P/M Merits
------
---------------P/M Disadvantages
----------
----------------P/M Summarizing

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Sheet Forming Techniques

Content:-
 ---INTRODUCTION
---FACTORS
**Elongation
**Yield-point elongation
**Anisotropy
**Grain size
**Residual stresses
**Spring back
**Wrinkling
---YIELD POINT ELONGATION
---RESIDUAL STRESSES
---BENDABILITY
---BENDING OPERATIONS
---BENDING OPERATIONS-TUBES
---DEEP DRAWING
---SHEARING MECHANISM
---SHEARING
**Punching/Piercing
**Blanking
**Perforating
**Slitting
**Parting
**Notching
**Lancing
**Nibbling

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Shearing and Bending Introduction

Content:-
 -----Introduction/ Shearing
-----Introduction/ Bending
-----Introduction/ Types of Bending
-----Springback in bending
-----Compensation for Springback
-----Variations of Flanging
-----Variations of Bending
-----Bending Lab./ Objectives
-----Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Simulations
******Bending Animation
******Springback Animation
------Summary

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Sheet Metal Fabrication

Content:-
----what is Sheet Metal Fabrication?
-----Gauge
------WHAT IS FOIL?
-------WHAT IS PLATE
-------Sheet metal fabrication processes
--------Forming
---------Cutting with shear
----------Cutting without shear
-----------Sheet Metal Forming
------------Bending
-------------ROLL FORMING
--------------DEEP DRAWING
---------------APPLICATIONS

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Sheet Metal Working

Content:-
 --Drawing
--Other Sheet Metal Forming Operations
--Dies and Presses for Sheet Metal Processes
--Sheet Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses
--Bending of Tube Stock
--Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting
--Sheet Metal Groups Allowances
--Punch and Die Sizes
--Angular Clearance
--Cutting Forces
--Sheet Metal Bending
--Bend Allowance Formula
--Springback
--Die Opening Dimension
--Drawing Ratio DR
--Ironing
--Embossing
--Guerin Process
--Advantages of Guerin Process
--Dies for Sheet Metal Processes
--Punch and Die Components
--Progressive Die
--Stamping Press
--Types of Stamping Press Frame
--Stretch Forming
--Roll Bending
--Roll Forming
--Spinning
--Explosive Forming
--Electromagnetic Forming

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Mechanical Drawing with arabic

content:-
-------------the book contain all principles  of mechanical drawing for beginner
--------------and the projections of all drawing with detailed and dimention of the draw.
-------------and the book explain the all sign of mechanical drawing that show the  description of the drawing

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Gears & Gearbox

Content:-
 ---What is Gear?
-----------
---Power Transmission
----------
 ---Involute & Its Properties
-----------
---Properties-
-------------
---Gear Terminology
-------------
---Types of Gears
-------------
---Nomenclature of Gear Tooth
--------------
---What is Gear Box
------------
---Different types of Gear Boxes
-----------
---Function of Gearbox.
--------------
 ---Applications of Gearbox.
--------------
--Comparisons

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Heat-Treatment-Part2

Content:-
 Defination
PROCESSING OPTIONS
Austenite
Slow Cooling
Medium Cooling
Fast Cooling
Classification of heat-treatment processes
1. annealing
2. Normalizing
3. Hardening
4. Tempering
Hardenability
Factors affecting hardenability
Jominy/ End Quench Test
Case Hardening & Surface Treatment

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Crystal Structure

Content:-
 ---Structure of cubic crystals (SC, BCC, FCC)
---Miller indices, planes and direction
---Ligancy and critical radius ratio inionic crystal.
---Imperfections: point, line, surface & Volume (introductory).
---Types of Solids
---Crystalline Solid
---Polycrystalline Solid
---CRYSTAL LATTICE
---Crystal Structure
---Translational Lattice Vectors –2D
---Lattice Vectors-2D
---Lattice Vectors-3D
---Unit Cell in 2D
---Unit Cell in 3D
---Three common Unit Cell in 3D
---TYPICAL CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
---Coordinatıon Number
---Atomic Packing Factor
---CUBIC CRYSTAL SYSTEM
---Simple Cubic (SC)
---Atomic Radius for SC
---Unit cell content
 
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Transformations on Heating and Cooling

Content:-
 ---Microstructure of Fe-C Martensites
---Structure of Fe-C on an atomic scale
---Hardness and strength of FeCmartensite
---Invariant reactions in theFe-Fe3C phase diagram
---Peritectic reaction
---Eutectic reaction
---Slow cooling of plaincarbon steels
---Eutectoid plain carbon steels
---Hypoeutectoid plain carbonsteels
---Hypereutectoid plain-carbonsteels
---Lath & Plate Martensites

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Heat Treatment-part1

Content:-
 ---Heat Treatment (HT)
---INTRODUCTION
---Iron-carbon phase diagram
---Solid Phases in the Iron Carbon Phase Diagram
---α-ferrite
---Austenite(γ)
---Critical temperatures
---Transformation on heating cooling
---Pearlite
---Martensite
---SOAKING
---Martensite (FeC)
---Transformation on heating cooling

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Yield Phenomenon Strain Aging Bauchinger Effect

Content:-
 ---Yield Phenomenon
-------------------
---Blue Brittleness
-------------------
---Yield Point Phenomenon
-------------------
---Lüders band
-------------------
---Bauschinger effect
-------------------

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Mechanism in Metals

Content:-
 --What is Strengthening?
--------------------------
--Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals
-------------------------
--Work hardening
----------------------------
--Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying
---------------------------
--Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening
-----------------------------
--Grain Boundary Strengthening

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Dislocation Slip Systems and Twining

Content:-
 IMPURITIES IN SOLIDS
Crystal Defects
Point Defects
Linear Defects-Dislocation
Dislocations
why study
Dislocations and
Strengthening Mechanisms?
EdgeDislocations
SLIP SYSTEMS
Deformation twinning
Twinning

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CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES


 Content:-
 The Structure of Crystalline Solids
why study The Structure of Crystalline Solids?
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
crystal structure
lattice
UNIT CELLS
METALLIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
The Face-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure(FCC)
BODY CENTERED CRYSTAL STRUCTURE (BCC)
The Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystal Structure(HCP)
DENSITY COMPUTATIONS
POLYMORPHISM AND ALLOTROPY
CRYSTAL SYSTEMS
Specification of Point Coordinates
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS
Hexagonal Crystals
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES

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CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF METALS AND ALLOTROPY


 Content:-
 Introduction
Space lattice
Crystalline lattice
STM
Polymorphism or Allotropy
Amorphous Solids
Crystal systems and Bravais Lattice
PRINCIPAL METALLIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES

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Dislocation Theory

Content:-
 • Introduction/Objectives

• Observation of dislocation

• Burgers vector and the dislocation loop

• Dislocation in the FCC, HCP and BCC lattice

• Stress fields and energies of dislocations

• Forces on dislocations and between dislocations

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Mechanical Properties of Metals

Content:-
 Stress and Strain
Direct Stress Examples
Tension Test
Modern Materials Testing System
ASTM Tension Test Specimen
Raw Data Obtained
Engineering Stress-Strain Curve
Hooke’s Law Elastic Deformation
Modulus of Elasticity - Stiffness
Atomic Origin of Stiffness
Shear Stress and Strain
Elastic Properties of Materials
Poisson’s Ratio, v
Plastic Deformation
Microstructural Origins of Plasticity
Elastic and Plastic Strain
Elastic Recovery
Ductility - EL% & AR%
Ductile Vs Brittle Materials
Toughness & Resilience
Toughness, Ut
Resilience, Ur
Typical Mechanical Properties

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Sheet Metal Forming

Content:-
• Introduction/objectives
• Deformation geometry
• Forming equipments
• Shearing and blanking
• Bending
• Stretch forming
• Deep drawing
• Forming limit criteria
• Defects in formed parts

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Charpy Impact Testing


 Content:-
 Notched bar or impact testing
Standard Charpy-V notch specimen
Effect of size on transition temperature and upper shelf values
Notch Behavior
Notch Effect
Size Effect
Inspection & witnessing

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Brittle Fracture and Impact Testing

Content:-
• Objective
• The brittle-fracture problem
• Notch-bar impact tests
• Ductile to metal transition temperature curve
• Metallurgical factors affecting transition temperature.
• Drop-weight test and other large scale tests
• Embrittlement in metals

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Fatigue Testing

Content:-
Metal Fatigue
Why Metal Parts Fail From Repeatedly-Applied Loads
HOW IS THE FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A METAL DETERMINED?
IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UTS AND FATIGUE STRENGTH?
IS THE ENDURANCE LIMIT AN EXACT NUMBER
Wohler rotating fatigue test
Effects of joint classification on fatigue life
Dye-penetrant testing
General Causes of Material Failures
Experimental Analysis of Fatigue
Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low–Alloy Steels
Cyclic Stresses
Factors That Affect Fatigue Life and Solutions

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Machining Techniques

Content:-
SPEED AND FEED SELECTIONS
FEEDRATES
1FEED AND SPEED ADJUSTMENTS
DEPTH OF CUT
EFFECTS OF CIRCULAR TOOL PATHS ON FEEDRATES
CHIP THINNING FACTORS
HORSEPOWER
CLIMB MILLING VERSUS CONVENTIONAL MILLING
DEFLECTION
FACE MILLING
CORNERS
GENERATING CORNERS
POCKET CUTTING
BURNED FLOORS
MILLING OPEN AND CLOSED ANGLE FLANGES
SEQUENCE OF CUTS
EFFECTS OF MACHINE TYPE ON MACHINING PHILOSOPHY
FINISHING EXTREMELY FRAIL, UNSUPPORTED CANTILEVERED STRUCTURES
FLANGE TOPS
RABBET CUTS (STEP CUTS FOR ADJOINING PARTS OR SKINS)
DEEP NARROW SLOTS
CLEVISES
REMOVING LARGE PIECES OF EXCESS MATERIAL
CUTOUTS
SURFACING
MACHINING DOUBLY CURVED SURFACES
TOOLING TABS TOOL TABS CAN BE USED FOR LOCATING, RESTRAINING OR BOTH.
PROFILING PERIPHERY OF THIN PLATES
PICTURE FRAME TOOLING
MACHINING PARTS WITH KNIFE EDGES
NORMAL DRILLING
REAMING
BORING
BACK-SPOTFACING AND BACK-BORING
TAPPING
MISCELLANEOUS TIPS AND MACHINING INFORMATION

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Composite Materials

composites are made up of at least two distinct intended materials which together improved product performance and or lower manufacturing costs. many materials routinely designated by other terms are also considered composites including plated, clad or coated metals. the term composite however has come to mean a material consisting of a matrix soared based material and the reinforcement material the.
            matrix functions as a binder for the reinforcement and controls the physical shape and dimensions of the park the primary purpose of the matrix is to transfer the load or stress supplied to the composite to the reinforcement the matrix also protects the reinforcement from adverse environmental effects .
the reinforcements function is to improve the mechanical properties of the composite and is typically the main load bearing element reinforcement is usually in the form of fibers or particles. there are numerous methods of producing parts from fibre reinforced thermo set polymers with the primary types being manual lay up, automated lay up, spray up, filament winding, pultrusion and resin transfer molding manual layout there's a widely used method of manufacturing a wide range of composite parts and components . the process begins with cutting the reinforcement material to size this may be performed using knives sizors discounters power shears rotary power cutters saws or lasers well. mold having the desired part shape is then coated with the release agent to permit subsequent part release composite manufacturing molds are commonly made of steel, aluminum ,nickel copper, polymer matrix composites once coated with the release agent the layer of resin called a gel coat may be applied to the mold and allowed to cure to attack the state as the gel coat cures. the reinforcement material is prepared for application by impregnation with what resin or matrix material the impregnated reinforcement material is then placed on the coded mold surface and hand rolled for uniform distribution and removal of been trapped there more reinforcement material and resin are applied as needed in this manner until required part thickness has been built up this so called wet lay-up method can be used with nearly all reinforcement materials and is widely used to produce glass reinforced polyester products and sometimes glass reinforced he proxy products. wet lay-up is also used for making composite molds leo can also be performed using pre preg material use of pre preg eliminate separate handling of the reinforcement and rested pre preg reduces resin consumption and can improve part quality by providing more consistent control of reinforcement and resin contents,however pre preg must be kept in refrigerated storage until you start to prevent free curing. composites are made up of at least two distinct intended materials up matrix or based material and the reinforcement material the matrix functions as a binder for the reinforcement and controls the physical shape and dimensions of the part. the primary purpose of the matrix is to transfer the load or stress applied to the composite to the reinforcement the matrix also protects the reinforcement from adverse environmental effects some of the primary matrix materials include polyester, epoxy, bismaleimide, phenolic and polyimide. the reinforcements function is to improve the mechanical properties of the composite and is typically the main load bearing element reinforcement is usually in the form of fibers or particles some of the most commonly used fibers are E-glass, aramid and carbon which is also referred to as graphite. these fibers come in many forms including strand fabric three impregnated or pre preg tape and reforms there are numerous methods of producing composite parts with the primary types being manual lay up automated lay-up spray op filament winding pulled through shin and resin transfer molding. after production composite parts may be allowed to cure it room temperature or with open-air he'd a cyst composite parts are also commonly consolidated and cured in heat platen presses ovens, or autoclaved after curing composite parts can be cut, machine and otherwise fabricated by many of the same methods used for medals additionally composite parts may be joined and assembled using adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening

Advanced Machining Processes

Content:-
 Parts Made by Advanced Machining Processes
Chemical Milling
Chemical-Machining
Surface Roughness and Tolerances in Machining
Parts Made by Chemical Blanking
Electrochemical Machining
Parts Made by Electrochemical Machining
Knee Implants
Electrochemical-Grinding Process
Electrical-Discharge Machining Process
Stepped Cavities Produced by EDM Process
The Wire EDM Process
Wire EDM
Laser-Beam Machining (LBM)
General Applications of Lasers in Manufacturing
Electron-Beam Machining Process
Water-Jet Cutting Process
Nonmetallic Parts Made by Water-Jet Cutting
Abrasive-Jet Machining
Case Study: Stent Manufacture

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Metals Machining

 Content:-
Rake angle
Clearance angle
Wedge angle
Hand Files
Hacksaw Blades
Taps
Hand tools
Machine tools
Turning Process
Lathe Machine Components
Shaping
Drilling Operation
Feed Rate
Depth of cut
Cutting time
Metallic Part Surface
Surface Texture
Surface Roughness 

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Introduction to CNC Machining

Content:-
 Introduction
CNC Turning Center
Example of NC part programming (2D contouring)
CNC TURNING
auxilary symbols
CNC MILLING
Basic Codes/ Basic Keys

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Die casting machines

there are several types of die casting machines in use today most of these machines are hydraulically actuated and operate horizontally but vertically operating machines are also utilized the principal difference between vertical and horizontal die casting machine is as the terms imply the direction of metal injection into the dark all die casting machines include a metal injection system to get the metal in the died and a clamping system to keep the dye has closed during injection.
            the two principal types of die casting machines are the hot chamber and cold chamber type the chamber machine is used mainly for die castings zinc and other metals of low melting temperature however it is also used to die-cast magnesium.
             the machine shop to charge and has a holding power which is a reservoir for the molten metal seated in a furnace and an injection system for transferring the metal through a gooseneck shaped pipe to the die the plunger end of the injection system and the lower portion of the transfer price are submerged in the molten metal for this reason aluminum and copper alloys are unsuitable for use since they chemically attack order road the submerged injection system.
             when the plunger rises buck charge of metal enters the pipe through a port when the plunger descends it closes the port and drives the charge through a nozzle at the end of the pipe and into the die.
          injection pressures may range from fifteen hundred to more than forty five hundred pounds per square inch or ten to thirty one mega Bascales.                the cold chamber machine is used primarily to die cast the aluminum magnesium and copper alloys in the cold chamber machine the charge is supplied by ladle or feed system from its external furnace source to a holding pot at the shop of the machine the feed system components are not submerged in the molten metal the charge is poured ahead of the plunger tip through a poor hole in the shots leave as the plunger advances it closes the poor hole and drives the molten metal into the die injection pressures may arrange to ten thousand pounds per square inch shorter sixty-nine mega bascales  for aluminum and magnesium although some machines can provide still greater pressures
          after the metal in the dies solidifies and the dies have separating the plunger thrusts forward extending the plunger tip past the cover die this pushes the biscuit that solidifies at the end of the shots leave assisting casting release.
        dies are usually produced from hot work tools stels mold steel maraging steels and to a lesser extent refractory metals such as tungsten and molybdenum  alloys all tooling materials are noted for high hot strength and high temperature where resistance .
     dies are usually made by machining from blocks of rock metal but they also can be cast in machine because of their machine features precision and materials used die casting tooling is expensive but the died as a reusable for thousands or even hundreds of thousands of parts but covered i have contains a port for entry of the molten metal from the metal injection system the ejector die half usually contains the channels called runners through which the molten metal flows to reach the gate or gates at the die cavity.
            dies are typically single cavity or multiple cavity dies multiple cavity dies are usually used for multiple identical parts however they also can be used to produce parts of different design and if so they are commonly called combination dies because such dyes are often used to cast parts that will be assembled together they are also called family dies meaning dies for a family of parts.
              cores fixed or movable  either die half are used to cast holes in various directions fixed cores are in line with the direction in which the die halves open those for holes in other directions are retractable on moving slides also called core polls to move in out with the shut inserts placed in position before each shut also can be used to cast complex features or to be cast in place as an enter grow casting feature .to minimize porosity in the casting the dye halves have vents to release the air that is pushed ahead of the metal shot overflow channels in the dive blocks catch surplus metal they also assist inventing and provide locations of the casting for its objection.
           built into the die blocks are cooling lines circulating water or oil dissipate the heat of the molten metal at a precise rate cooling it a controllable pool in flow rate is important because it controls the metal solidification rate
          an ejector system is required to release the casting in the system ejector pins are mounted between ejector plates in a pocket on the objector side of the die in most cases they are activated by numatic or hydraulic cylinders.
           to facilitate casting ejection dies and cores incorporate a slight draft or taper the amount depending on the metal to be cast in general the lower the metals melting temperature the less the draft require

Electro discharge machine (EDM)

to understand how EDM removes metal let's examine a single spark in the erosion process as a pulse of dc electricity reaches the electrode and part an intense electrical field develops in the gap microscopic contaminant suspended in the dialectic fluid are attracted by the field and concentrate at the field strongest point these contaminants build a high conductivity bridge across the gap as the fields voltage increases this material in the conductive bridge heats up some pieces ionized to form a spark channel between the electrode and the work piece at this point both the temperature and pressure in the channel rapidly increase generating a spark. a small amount of material melts in vaporizes from the electrode and workpiece at the points a spark contact .a bubble composed of gaseous by-products of vaporization rapidly expands outward from the spark channel. once the poll ends the spark and heating action stop collapsing the spark channel di electric fluid ben rushes into the gap flushing molten material from both surfaces. these EDM residue consist of small solidified balls of material and gas bubbles.
              the resulting EDM part can have several observable surface layers the top surface layer is created when expelled molten metal and small amounts of electrode material form spheres and spatter the surface. this layer is easily removed. the next layer is a recast or white layer where EDM ng has altered the workpiece metallurgical structure this layer can be reduced using the right control settings or by polishing the park. the third layer is that he defected zone or annealed later it has only been heeded not melted.
         in ram EDM machines the workpiece mounts inside a tank and is covered with dielectric fluid and electrod then lowers to within a few thousands of an inch of the workpiece to begin EDM inc ram EDM have the ability to produce complex cavities out of a solid piece of metal ram EDM machines are also referred to as diesinkers or vertical EDM and range in size and automation from manually operated tabletop systems a large bed manual or computer numerical control systems.
              a ram EDM has four major subsystems a power supply a dielectric system an electrode and a servo system cnc wire cut EDM machines user traveling wire electrode to cut complex outlines and fine details in stamping and blanking dies of prehardened tool steel               the wire drive system continuously delivers fresh wire under constant tension to the work area guided by a set of satsphire or diamond wire guides new wire is always exposed to the part so electrode where isn't a problem like in ram EDM.
      wire EDM machines are also easier to learn and ram EDM they can run unattended for long periods including overnight and weekends there are four basic wire EDM subsystems all of which are cmc controlled knows some systems include the power supply the die electric system the wire feeding system and the positioning system

Non-traditional Machining2

Content:-
1.Mechanical Energy Processes (high velocity stream of abrasives or   fluid or both)
• Ultrasonic machining (USM)
• Water jet cutting (WJC)
• Abrasive Water jet cutting (WJC)
• Abrasive jet machining (AJM)
2.Electrochemical Processes (ECM)
• reverse of electroplating
3.Thermal Processes (EDM, EDWC, EBM, LBM, PAC)
• vaporizing of a small area of work surface
4.Chemical Processes (CHM, Chemical Blanking, PCM)
• chemical etching of areas 

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Nontraditional Machining


  Content:-
• Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
• Water-Jet Machining & Abrasive-Jet Machining
• Chemical Machining
• Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
• Electrical-Discharge Machining (EDM)
• High-Energy-Beam Machining
• Laser-beam machining (LBM)
• Electron-beam machining (EBM)
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Machining Process


Content:-
Single point machining
Turning, boring, trepanning, planing
Multiple point machining
Drilling, milling, reaming, sawing, broaching, grinding
Tool Stationary: turning, boring…
Tool moves: sawing, milling, drilling, broaching
Work Piece moves: milling, boring…
Both move: milling, 5 axis milling
Machine tool
number of axes, spindles, serial and parallel configurations Cutter geometry
Form tool, cutter radius, inserts, tool changers Software
flexibility, geometrical compensation, “look ahead” dynamics compensation
System Configurations
Part Holding / Fixturing
Process Planning
Environment

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Common Machining Process

Content:-
 Common Machining Processes
Orthogonal Cutting
Chip Formation
Types of Chips
Hardness in Cutting Zone
Chip Breakers
Oblique Cutting
Right-Hand Cutting Tool
Cutting Forces
Shear Force & Normal Force
Temperatures in Cutting
Terminology in Turning
Tool Wear
Effect of Workpiece on Tool Life
Tool-Life Curves
Surface Finish
Surfaces in Machining
Hardness of Cutting Tools
Tool Materials
Properties of Tungsten-Carbide Tools
Inserts
Properties of Cutting Tool Materials
Characteristics of Machining
Lathe Operations
CNC Lathe
Drills
Reamers and Taps
Conventional and Climb Milling
Face Milling
Cutting Mechanics
Milling Operations
Milling Machines
Broaching
Saws and Saw Teeth
Gear Manufacture
Machining of Bearing Races
Hexapod
Chatter & Vibration
Machining Economics

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Conventional Machining


Content:-
• Machining basics
• Mechanics of chip formation
• Tool wear and tool life
• Surface finish and integrity
•Cutting Tools
•Tool Materials
•Tool Wear Mechanisms

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Manufacturing Processes


Content:-
•Machine Tools and Processes
•Turning
•Boring
•Milling
•Sawing
•Grinding
•Planing
•Reaming
•Shaping
•Broaching
•Honing
•Tapping
•Drilling
•Filing
•Lathe Parts
•Merchant’s Force Circle
•Typical Insert Cutting Tool
•Chip Types
•Tool Coatings
•Tool Marks
•Roughness
•Tool Wear
•Taylor’s Equation

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Metal powder and powder metallurgy technology

metal powders used for parts production can be a combination of various elemental particles or pre alloy powder if elemental powder issues each of the ingredients that will comprise the desired part are mixed in proper proportion into a uniform blend with pre alloy powder the proper proportion of ingredients is already present in each particle in either case additives such as binders and lubricants are usually at it the powder is then consolidated in molds or dies shaping and been supplying it into what compact.
                   at the desired part at this point depart or compact is in the green state where the powder particles are just lightly join together in this state the parts have a so-called green strength which is usually only sufficient for handling purposes the part so then transferred to a sintering furnace during sintering part sintered at a temperature below the melting point or range of the base metal but high enough to metallurgical  bonds.
                  the individual particles sintering further densify stock parts increasing strength final part density is extremely important although controlled ferocity is required and achievable for certain parts the performance of structural parts increases directly with increasing density the common methods of consolidating and shaping metal powder for parts production include mechanical pressing injection moulding and isostatic pressing.
                  most parts are made by mechanical pressing and suturing parts are usually small to moderate in size and can be simple or complex in shape they can be very thin or thick and can also have one or more levels shallow or deep holes and various other details parts produced by mechanical pressing convene net or near net in shape and have very close taller insist park production rates are high from several hundred to thousands of parts per hour.
                       in mechanical pressing the powder is automatically gravity fed into the died of a mechanical or hydraulic press and consolidated to a specific density pressures of ten to sixty tons per square inch are created by the vertical action of improper punch or by the double action oven upper and lower punch pressing is typically at room temperature although elevated temperatures can also be used core rods are used inside the died to control formation of holes parallel to the direction of pressing if the part being made a stand and uniform in height the powder can be pressed from one side by the upper part when that punch withdraws while lower punch is the part out of the die the parties
                     then ejected by the wiping action of the powder featured which also wipes powder for the next piece into the dee ejected should from the press can also be accomplished using automated handling equipment the density of pressed powder tends to decrease along part hike as the distance between the comp acting punch and di increases to produce more uniform density thick parts are contacted by a sect of operand lower punches after pressing parts are transferred to the sintering furnace sintering furnaces include preheat high heat centering and cooldown zones each having a controlled atmosphere depending on the base metal of the part.
                     the atmosphere of the sintering furnace maybe and autmosphere which is composed mainly of hydrogen nitrogen and carbon monoxide x author which is composed of nitrogen mainly dissociated ammonia which is hydrogen and nitrogen entirely hydrogen vacuum or inert gas to ensure proper sintering defeating rate maximum sintering temperature time at the center in temperature cooling rate and furnace atmosphere must be closely controlled.
                  powder metallurgy is a metalworking technology used primarily for producing parts from metal powder the primary advantage of powder metal parts is design flexibility parts can be produced a net or near net shape and to control porosity or nearly full density most metal powder is produced by physical or mechanical methods added is by high-pressure water or inert gas is the most common physical method mechanical methods include milling and hammer rod grinding or attrition mills metal powder used for parts production can be a combination of various elemental particles or pre-owned lloyd powder the powder is then consolidated in dies or molds shaping intensifying the father came to a compact of the desired park the compact which is in a green st is then singer the common methods of consolidation are mechanical pressing injection moulding and isostatic pressing
                  in mechanical pressing the powder is automatically gravity fed into the diana press and consolidated by the vertical action of a punch or punches most powder metal parts are produced by mechanical pressing after pressing parts are transferred to a sintering furnace where they are heated to metallurgical bonds the individual particles after sintering parts may require additional processing .
                     in secondary operations injection molding involves mixing the povirk with the thermoplastic by and granulated to produce the feedstock the feedstock is heated and then injected into a more to produce the desired bar once the part hardens it is d binder rise and then center powder consolidation by isostatic pressing can be performed at room temperature which is called cold isostatic pressing or at an elevated temperature which is known as hot isostatic pressing






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GEARBOX FUNDAMENTAL, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Content:-
Introduction
Why gears are used?
Fundamentals of gearing
Classification of gears
Gear Making process
Type of gear boxes
Material for gear boxes
Gear lubrication and cooling
Gear failures
Trouble shooting
Market products and specification

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Manual Gear Box 02t

Content:-
Introduction
The modular system
Selector shaft with selector mechanism cover
The inner selector module
The bearing support
The housing
Gearbox design
The output shaft
Double synchroniser for 1st/2nd gear
Force path
Outer selector mechanism

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Design of Gearbox

Content:-
Commercial gearboxes
Gearbox design.
HELICAL GEARBOX DESIGN
RECOMMENDED OIL FOR VARIOUS SLIDING SPEEDS
ISO VG GRADE LUBRICANTS
SAE OIL VISCOSITY CHART
End view of the gearbox

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Introduction to Gearbox Design

Content:-
Introduction
Types of Gears
Terms
Material
Manufacture
Spur Design
Spur Gear Rating
Material Upgrade
Long Addendum
Rim Thickness
Spur Application
Helical/Bevel
H/B Application
Appendix I
Appendix II
Appendix III

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Iron crystal structures

when a molten metal solidifies the atoms arrange themselves into definite patterns called crystal structures the two most common crystal structures and metals are body centered cubic and face centered cubic these crystal structures grow uniformly in all directions within each developing crystal as the metal cools these crystals are confined by the adjacent developing crystals forming grains the line of intersection between grains is called a grain boundary because the grains form independently their crystal structures developed tilted in various directions.
                       all atoms in these crystalline structures are held in place by electromagnetic attraction to neighboring atoms if a force or load is applied to a metal these electromagnetic bond stretch allowing the atoms to move slightly when the load is removed the bonds pull the atoms back into position if the applied for succeeds the metals yield strength those electromagnetic bonds will break causing permanent stretching or deformation.
                    this diagram is the iron carbon phase diagram let's examine how temperature and carbon content combine to provide a variety of metallurgical structures the left-hand side of this diagram is ferrite. ferrite is iron containing an extremely minute amount of carbon at room temperature fair itis magnetic relatively soft and has a body centered cubic crystal structure at room temperature the solid solubility or the amount of carbon that can be dissolved in ferrite is practically zero the amount of carbon dissolvable in ferrite increases to only a maximum of point zero two five percent at one thousand three hundred thirty three degrees fahrenheit.
                    when heated to one thousand six hundred seventy degrees fahrenheit fair rights body centered cubic crystal structure rearrange is itself into a face centered cubic structure known as austenite.this transformation to boss tonight is an important phase in the heat treatment of steals .
                      austenite crystal structure allows it to absorb up two point eight zero percent of carbon at one thousand three hundred thirty three degrees fahrenheit increasing to a maximum of two point zero percent at two thousand sixty six degrees fahrenheit the right-hand side of this iron carbon phase diagram represents cementite also known as iron carbide.
                          cementite contains six point six seven percent carbon though this phase diagram ranges from ferrite with very low carbon content to cementite with six point six seven percent carbon most steals contain less than to point zero percent carbon the carbon content is the major factor in determining the properties that can be developed in steel the use of very low carbon contents or very high carbon contents provides many different steel compositions with very different properties for this reason steel is suited to a wide range of engineering applications.
                           let's take a closer look at some examples of how carbon affects the hardness of steals if steel containing point zero three zero percent carbon is heated to about one thousand seven hundred degrees fahrenheit the structure will consist entirely of austenite if it is then cooled slowly at about one thousand six hundred fifty degrees fahrenheit the austenite begins to transform tu ferrite as cooling continues more and more ferrite is for me until it one thousand three hundred thirty three degrees fahrenheit the remaining austenite transforms completely ferrite can retain only point zero two five percent carbon at this temperature so to accommodate the carbon in access of this amount the remaining austenite transforms to a mixture aferrite and cement ait in alternating thin plate like lawyers this structure is referred to as per light at room temperature the steel is mostly ferrite with patches of pro-life










Lecture10: Torsion in Solid and Hollow Shafts

Content:-
TORSIONAL DEFORMATION OF A CIRCULAR SHAFT
Torsional Deformation of Circular Bars
Torsional Deformation
Torque transmitted by shaft(solid)
Torque transmitted by shaft(hollow)
Power transmitted by shaft
Torque in terms of polar moment of inertia
Polar Modulus
Torsional rigidity
Shaft in combined bending and Torsion stresses

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Lecture9: Deflection in Beams

Content:-
Beam Deflection
Relationship
Methods to find slope and deflection
Double integration method
Macaulay’s method
Moment-Area Theorems
Moment Area Method
An Exercise- Moment of Inertia – Comparison

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Lecture8: Shear Stresses in Beams

 Conteny:-
Shear Stresses in Beams of Rectangular Cross Section
Vertical & Horizontal Shear Stresses
Shear Stresses
Shear stress distribution for different section
Shear stress distribution

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Lecture7: Bending Stresses in Beams

Content:-
Theory of simple bending (assumptions)
Bending in beams
Bending Stress in beams
Stresses due to bending
Neutral axis
Moment of resistance
Flexure Formula
Beam subjected to 2 BM
Section Modulus
Section Modulus of symmetrical sections
Section Modulus of unsymmetrical sections
Composite beams

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Lecture6: Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams

Content:-
Why study stresses in beams
What are beams
Objective
Beam Types
Load Types on Beams
Sign Convention for forces and moments
SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS
Shear Force and Bending Moment in a Beam
Shear Force and Bending Moment
SF and BM formulas
Cantilever with point load
Cantilever with uniform distributed load
Cantilever with gradually varying load
Simply supported with point load
Simply supported with uniform distributed load
SF and BM diagram
Relation between load, shear force and bending moment

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Lecture5: Castigliono’s Theorem

Content:-
Castigliono’s First Theorem
Castigliono’s Second Theorem

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Lecture4: 3D Stress Tensor and Equilibrium Equations

Content:-
3-D Stress and Strain
Equilibrium equations
For 2 dimension
For 3 dimension
Impact Load
Definitions
Strain energy when load is applied gradually
Strain energy when load is applied suddenly
Strain energy when load is applied with impact
Strain energy in shear loading

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