Petroleum onshore drilling rig

drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth sub-surface. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and are called augers


The main components of a petroleum onshore drilling rig :-


A crown block :- is the stationary section of a block and tackle that contains a set of pulleys or sheaves through which the drill line is threaded or sheaves through which the drill line  is threaded or reeved and is opposite and above the traveling block.

derrick :- is a lifting device composed at minimum of one guyed mast, as in a gin pole, which may be articulated over a load by adjusting its guys. Most derricks have at least two components, either a guyed mast or self-supporting tower, and a boomhinged at its base to provide articulation, as in a stiffleg derrick.

A traveling block :- is the freely moving section of a block and tackle that contains a set of pulleys or sheaves through which the drill line is threaded or  reeved and is opposite the crown block

A Swivel :- is a mechanical device used on a drilling rig that hangs directly under the traveling block and directly above the kelly drive, that provides the ability for the kelly to rotate while allowing the traveling block to remain in a stationary rotational position while simultaneously allowing the introduction of drilling fluid into the drill string.

rig standpipe :- is a solid metal pipe attached to the side of a drilling rig's derrick that is a part of its drilling mud system. It is used to conduct drilling fluid from the mud pumps to the kelly hose. Bull plugs, pressure transducers and valves are found on the rig standpipe.

A kelly :- refers to a type of well drilling device on an oil or gas drilling rig that employs a section of pipe with a polygonal or splined outer surface, which passes through the matching polygonal or splined kelly bushing and rotary table.

A rotary drive :- is a mechanical device on a drilling rig that provides clockwise rotational force to the drill string to facilitate the process of drilling a borehole. Rotary speed is the number of times the rotary table makes one full revolution in one minute.

A draw-works :- is the primary hoisting machinery that is a component of a rotary drilling rig. Its main function is to provide a means of raising and lowering the traveling blocks. The wire-rope drilling line winds on the draw works drum and extends to the crown block and traveling blocks, allowing the drill string to be moved up and down as the drum turns. 

blowout prevention (BOP) :- is a large, specialized valve or similar mechanical device, used to seal, control and monitor oil and gas wells to prevent blowout, the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from well. They are usually installed redundantly in stacks.

A mud pump :- is a reciprocating piston/plunger device designed to circulate drilling fluid under high pressure (up to 7,500 psi (52,000 kPa) ) down the drill string and back up the annulus.

A Drill bit :- is a tool designed to produce a generally cylindrical hole in the earth’s crust by the rotary drilling method for the discovery and extraction of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas.

A casing :- is a simple metal flange welded or screwed onto the top of the conductor pipe or the casing and forms part of the wellhead system for the well.

A standpipe :- is a solid metal pipe attached to the side of a drilling rig's derrick that is a part of its drilling mud system. It is used to conduct drilling fluid from the mud pumps to the kelly hose. Bull plugs, pressure transducers and valves are found on the rig standpipe.

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