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Casting process & it's Types

is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process”  Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.

Types of casting…!!! 
 Following are the basic types of casting:-
 1-Sand casting :-
also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via a sand casting process ,Sand casting is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. 

 2-Die casting :-
Die casting Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process.

 3-Shell mold casting :-
is an expendable mold casting process that uses a resin covered sand to form the mold.  As compared to sand casting, this process has better dimensional accuracy, a higher productivity rate, and lower labor requirements. It is used for small to medium parts that require high precision.

 4-Permanent mold casting :-
 is metal casting process that employs reusable molds ("permanent molds"), usually made from metal. The most common process uses gravity to fill the mold, however gas pressure or a vacuum are also used. A variation on the typical gravity casting process, called slush casting, produces hollow castings. 

 5-Investment casting (lost wax casting) :-
is an industrial process based on and also called lost-wax casting, one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques .From 5,000 years ago, when bees wax formed the pattern, to today’s high-technology waxes, refractory materials and specialist alloys, the castings allow the production of components with accuracy, repeatability, versatility and integrity in a variety of metals and high-performance alloys.

 6-Lost-foam casting:-
is a type of evaporativepattern casting process that is similar to investment casting except foam is used for the pattern instead of wax. This process takes advantage of the low boiling point of foam to simplify the investment casting process by removing the need to melt the wax out of the mold

7-Centrifugal casting:-
Centrifugal casting or roto-casting is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thinwalled cylinders. It is noted for the high quality of the results attainable, particularly for precise control of their metallurgy and crystal structure. 

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